Motivations for Cosmetic Surgery, a Changing Landscape Says Survey.

motivations for cosmetic surgery
Motivations For Cosmetic Surgery A Changing Landscape Says Survey

The motivations for cosmetic surgery is a topic that features at the front of my thoughts.  As a leading blog in the cosmetic surgery sector we need to question the reason why so many people are willing to undergo life-changing elective surgery and often have months of recovery.  Obviously there are important psychological considerations involved in this process.

A recent article in psychologytoday addressed the topic and especially the effect of social media on as one of the key motivations for cosmetic surgery.

‘Generally speaking, the decision to have a cosmetic procedure is based on a combination of physical and psychological factors. However, it is becoming well recognized that the growing popularity of social media may be a key driver for the rising trend of plastic surgery with several popular phone apps like Facetune and Snapchat leading the way. ‘

The article referenced a study from June 2020 by a group of researchers .  In the study 20 subjects aged between 18 and 34 years old filled out a validated questionnaire called the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale and were asked to use the Facetune2 app for one week. After using the app, subjects submitted their photographs and filled out the survey once again. They  found that both men and women were more likely to consider cosmetic surgery after just one week of using the app. Interestingly, using the application had no effect on ratings of self-esteem during the study period. This was the first study published demonstrating a direct relationship between social media and consideration of cosmetic surgery.

so young china beauty app

Other studies and articles have pointed out that in China, the growth of plastic surgery apps like ‘So Young ‘ has had a huge impact on young people's motivation for cosmetic surgery and this has definitely helped fuel the boom in other countries such as South Korea.

The study concurs with what i have often argued here on this site that one of the biggest concerns with social media establishing cultural standards is the potential for the creation of unrealistic norms. As people compare themselves with those who are unrealistically portrayed through social media, it can drive them to form impractical ideals.

facetune and motivation for cosmetic surgery

In the case of Facetune and Snapchat, this can be done through the use of heavily edited photographs and filtered images. Users of these apps should be aware that such changes that seem easy to make on their phones do not necessarily translate into changes that are so easily—or even possibly-made surgically.

As we learn more about the role of social media as  motivations for cosmetic surgery,  it is important for both surgeons and our patients to be aware of the potential consequences associated with unrealistic expectations that may consciously or subconsciously arise from scrolling through a news feed or applying an image filter.

As a blog we are clear that cosmetic and plastic surgeries are largely a wonderful application of science and medicine in the service of beauty, but we are also anxious that the industry must self regulate and filter out patients who suffer from dysmorphia or unrealistic expectations in their motivations for cosmetic surgery.




Gynecomastia, Male Breast Enlargement What Are Your Options?

Gynecomastia Male Breast Enlargement What Are Your Options


One of the most common surgeries for men is dealing with ‘moobs' (man boobs) is Gynecomastia.  It is an embarrassing condition  making it difficult to train at the gym or feel at ease on the beach.   Fortunately it is problem easily dealt with by all cosmetic surgeons.

If you're a man with enlarged breasts, you're probably taking some time collecting relevant information to help you make a decision what, if anything, to do about your condition.

Gynecomastia is a common condition in men and boys. The breasts swell and become abnormally large. All males and females have breast glands, but they are not obvious in men, because they have a tendency to be small and undeveloped

In about 25% of cases, the causes of gynecomastia are not known. In other cases, strong medicines like methadone, spironolactone, HIV medication, cancer chemotherapy, hormone therapy for prostatic cancer, ulcer medication, CCB, antifungal medication, antibiotics and antidepressants have a tendency to disturb the natural hormonal balance and lead to gynecomastia

Before surgical procedure, a patient must go through all recommended medical tests. As component of the preparation, the patient should avoid taking any medicine without prior authorization from the surgeon. Usage of nicotine should be dropped in the days leading up to the surgery
The cosmetic surgeon should explain why he has asked the patient to follow certain guidelines in the days preceding the surgery. This ensures that all the guidelines are followed consistently.

Doktor plastic surgeon preparation before surgery to reduce breasts in men, gynecomastia, lipolysis, liposuction

Medications for the therapy of gynecomastia.

Tamoxifen is a drug that blocks the action of the female hormone estrogen in the body. It is used for treating and preventing breast cancer, but it can also reduce the symptoms of breast pain and breast enlargement in men.

Aromatase inhibitors, used for treating breast and ovarian cancer in post-menopausal women, may be used off-label to prevent or treat gynecomastia in males.

The procedure can be done under local anaesthetic or general anaesthetic. When the gynecomastia surgery is done under local anaesthetic, patients will feel a small sting as the local anaesthetic is infiltrated into the breast tissue; this takes about five or ten minutes.

Recurrence after Gynecomastia surgery.
Once the firm breast tissue is removed, it will not generally return. … If the condition arose from the use of medications, anabolic steroids, or hormones, these could contribute to a recurrence of the condition. Post-operative weight gain may also result in a recurrence

Gynecomastia Recovery
Initial male breast reduction recovery time takes about 1-2 weeks typically. During this time, patients will want to take it easy, and must avoid strenuous activity to facilitate healing and prevent complications.

‘So Young’ App Fuels China Cosmetic Surgery Boom.

so young cosmetic surgery app china
So Young App Fuels China Cosmetic Surgery Boom

Cosmetic surgery is so popular in China that apps supporting the sector are really taking off. From your phone, the apps will scan your face, tell you what work you must have done to improve your face, recommend surgeons, and even schedule and pay for appointments and surgeries.

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In excess of 7 million Chinese undertook cosmetic surgery in 2014, according to the China Association of Plastics and Aesthetics. By 2017, that number jumped to more than 16 million people who were opted for cosmetic surgery, according to Frost & Sullivan data, according to CNN.

Popular procedures in China include hyaluronic acid injections, botox, double-edged eyelid surgery, nose-related surgery, liposuction and laser hair removal. Recently, demand for female genitalia surgery (labiaplasty) is growing at a remarkable rate of 127%.

so young china beauty app
Before and after on the So Young App

This has resulted in the escalating popularity of apps like So-Young and GengMei, where consumers can view before and after images, plan appointments, and pay for surgeries. SoYoung has built up an O2O platform for cosmetic surgery services that is gaining a strong user base. One of the main factors for the platform’s speedy growth is its social media-style credit evaluation system.

SoYoung is essentially a social networking site that allows users to share anything about plastic surgery — from writing reviews, comments and journals about their treatments, to posting before-and-after selfies. Among its features are a location-based search function for clinics, and a link for users to connect with doctors for live-video consultations and payment services.

” In China, it is very difficult to find reliable information on clinics, especially in small cities,” Tony DeGennaro, co-founder of Dragon Social, a Chinese market intelligence agency, told CNN. “People no longer trust the search results returned by (the search engine) Baidu, after several medical scandals associated with the platform, so these new applications have turned into informal cosmetic surgeon directories.”

so young app attracts young women

The majority of patients are women under the age of 26, according to a document published in 2019 by So-Young, and many feel it assists them to find jobs and husbands.  Cosmetic surgery devotees seem to draw most of their inspiration from South Korea’s K-Pop, Japanese manga comics, and Western culture, but others are going further than that to design their own individualistic faces, even opting for elf-like features or a world-weary, lived-in look.

The GengMei Chinese esthetic surgery app from Wanmei Creative Technology, based in Huaibei City, Anhui Province, eastern China.Alamy stock photo
” China is still a very patriarchal society,” Brenda Alegre, a prof of gender studies at the University of Hong Kong who analyzed the trend of plastic surgery, told CNN. “Being pretty is one way to ensure that you are successful at work and that you find a husband.”

The website notes that “GengMei (which has an augmented reality feature that can analyze a face and give it a rating of 100 based on criteria such as liveliness, attractiveness, and symmetry) has 36 million users and lists nearly 20,000 surgeons on its platform., a company spokesperson confirmed. Ten-Backed So-Young has 2.47 million monthly active users and nearly 6,000 surgeons listed, according to a So-Young spokesperson. These apps offer testimonials from cosmetic surgery patients, with photos of before and after, as well as surgeon reviews. ”

Gengmai also offers microloans to pay for procedures.

Popular looks include “baby face,” which calls for “a round, full face with a smooth contour, a short chin, a prominent forehead, large eyes, and a small button nose,” according to descriptions posted on the app, it reported. CNN. Nose and facial fillers and surgeries help achieve the look.

Shruti Haasan and Cosmetic Surgery – Indian Movie Star Opens Up About Her Surgery.

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The delightful Indian movie star Shruti Haasan, who has been open about undergoing plastic surgery, has spoken up about the beauty standards of the film industry in a recent interview with the Hindustan Times.

In an interview with Hindustan Times, when asked if there was a pressure to look a certain way, Shruti said, “I think there is and there isn’t. There was a time I listened to the pressure. As far as my nose surgery goes, it’s a choice I made, even after my first film was done because my nose was broken. I didn’t like the way it felt. I didn’t like the way it looked. It was a personal choice. Nobody asked me to fix it. ”

Shruti said that she “doesn't promote plastic surgery” and that it was an individual choice. She told Hindustan Times, “If there are any actresses telling you they haven't done it, they are blatantly lying because people's faces don't change that much. But it's just something that I wanted to talk about. I don't propagate it. What I'm trying to say is… It could be something from colouring your hair, like women who are Indian who feel they need to bleach their skin or dye their hair blonde or wear blue contact lenses…It's the same thing, right?” Shruti added, “You don't need to fit into anything, you do what you have to do. If a woman in her 40s feels she wants Botox because it makes her feel better, that's her choice and if she feels that this is not what she wants, that is her choice too. I felt I should be honest about my journey.” This is a very good point about Shruti Haasan and Cosmetic Surgery .

There is something reassuring that Shruti is so honest and open about her Cosmetic surgery journey, many actresses are silent on the subject.  Especially since was ‘trolled' recently for her lip surgery and her nose job.  Certainly in her recent interviews she has calmly risen above all that.  In a social media post she set out her views very clearly: “I'm happy to say this is my life, my face and yes, I've had plastic surgery which I'm not ashamed to admit. Do I promote it? No. Am I against it? No. It's just how I choose to live. The biggest favour we can do for ourselves and others is just be and learn to accept the changes and the movement of our bodies and minds,”  Certainly ‘Shruti Haasan and Cosmetic Surgery ‘ has been a recurring phrase.

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When asked recently about her early success in cinema she admitted that her family name had a lot to do with it because of her famous father her father, Shruti Haasan Kamal Haasan.  She said that ‘ “The doors of the film industry opened for me simply because of my surname. It would be criminal to deny that. But over the years, I learned that things are different in Tamil and Telugu cinema when compared to Bollywood.”




South Korean Cosmetic Surgery Culture Exposed in New Book.

korean cosmetic surgery
South Korean Cosmetic Surgery Culture Exposed In New Book

Fiction and Reality in Kpop Cosmetic Surgery Culture.

Frances Cha picked a grimly fascinating subject for her debut novel:'I wish I looked like you'  the very in-your-face look at the South Korean Cosmetic Surgery Culture and the very underground “room salon” culture — and the ways they are troublingly intertwined.

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The weird cosmetic surgery culture in Seoul which dominates the celebrity media and helps fuel the whole Kpop ethos provides the background for this novel.. This is a fascinating documentary I unearthed on the whole kpop phenomenon.

Seoul is the world’s plastic surgery capital, where more than a million procedures take place a year at the “pretty factories,” everything from eye re-stitching to armpit whitening.

Cha portrays a world where many of the patients are young teenage girls. A common operation is jaw reduction which along with eyelid surgery is a mainstay of South Korean Cosmetic Surgery.

This whole beauty culture aspect of South Korean society is reflected in TV shows such as ‘Let Me In' which created a viral social media star from Ms Huh ye eun who was spectacularly transformed in 2012 by the show.

Heo Ye Eun now works for the marketing team of a plastic surgery clinic, but before that she had a go at running an online shopping mall, worked at a duty-free shop, and even appeared in a movie in 2015.

Even the “lucky” patients face a post-operation year struggling with teeth that won’t align, their chins often so numb that they use their mobile phone cameras just to check if they are dribbling their food. But the Seoul cosmetic beauty industry grows from strength to strength and the vast majority of surgeries are first class although some procedures might be ill-advised.

If you are considering travelling to Seoul to get cosmetic surgery treatment, once air travel returns, you should check our listing of recommended clinics in South Korea.  Hopefully your experience won't be anything like the experiences describe in Frances Cha's fascinating novel.


Netflix ‘Skin Decisions’ Reveals Human Interest Story .

Just the other day we announced that Netflix was streaming ‘Skin Decisions' a series about cosmetic surgery with a ‘before/after' focus.   Now we understand that 64 year old Kate from the show had such a boost in self confidence that she bounced herself right into a Justin Bieber video!   How cool and rewarding is that!

skin decisions
Kate before and after her surgery

When  Kate approached Dr. Sheila Nazarian and Nurse Jamie, she desperately wanted a boost of self-confidence. She had recently ended an abusive relationship, and viewers were touched by her stubbornness to seek out some positivity in the face of such an emotionally harrowing ordeal.

The celebrity surgeons  performed a lower face lift, lower and upper eye surgery, and lip enhancements. The before and after photos shown above, are absolutely remarkable.

Following her surgery, Kate imparted a positive message to the production team, stating, “This whole experience has taught me a lot of things. But the most important thing it’s taught me is to do the thing that scares you and to be willing to take risks because without risk there is no reward.”

Kate’s newfound confidence led her to audition for a Justin Bieber music video. She got the part in his video ‘Yummy'.

She appears in several shots sitting right next to the Biebs, bopping to the track, eating some “yummy” snacks and generally looking fly in her oversized glasses and blue and red blazer.

A really cool result and a big ‘thumbs up' for Netflix ‘Skin Decisions'  and Bieber. We love it when celebrity cosmetic surgery brings such good results.  I have been saving up the Skin Decisions experience for this coming weekend when I will  have some free time to really get into the show.  Problem is that i am in my country summer cottage and I am running low on popcorn.

‘Skin Decision’ – Netflix Announces Cosmetic Surgery Reality Series

Amazing news for all you cosmetic surgery fan out there.  Netflix, the world's favourite streaming service is bringing you a reality show, ‘Skin Decision' which looks at ‘before and after ‘ scenarios in the lives of cosmetic surgeon clients.

The trailer gives a brief look at the confidence boost clients are given after their procedures which is sure to warm your heart.

“Plastic surgery doesn't have to mean changing who you are, it's about becoming the best version of yourself,” a voice can be heard saying.

“Everyone has something about themselves that they don't like physically,” Nazarian says in the trailer.

“Our goal is for people to feel good in their own skin.”

The brief clip includes plenty of emotional moments from patients as they open up to the medical professionals about their insecurities.

“I don't have to look like Barbie, I just want to look normal,” one woman explains.

nip and tuck cosmetic surgery show skin decision

This show will get huge audience ratings as have other shows such as ‘Nip and Tuck' which have tackled the fascinating world of cosmetic and plastic surgery. and ran from 2003 – 2010.

The Netflix Skin Decision show will certainly target the Instagram generation of young women who base much of their self worth on the quality of their ‘selfies' and follow assiduously the cosmetic surgery lives of the Kardashians and other reality stars.  I for one, can't wait for this series to jump into my living room.  the opening episode sound very good ‘The Scars do not Define Me'  which looks at plastic surgery to repair damage from an accident.

Another episode ‘I Always Look Pregnant'  – performer Melissa needs a fix for her distended stomach after e4 kids. . Nurse Jamie tackles Patty's skin damage from alcohol, smoking and the sun.

Bring it on!


Estonia Cosmetic Surgery – Post Covid Boom

estonia cosmetic surgery
Tallinn, Estonia old city skyline at dawn.

During the emergency situation, from March to May, the majority of Estonian clinics were closed, but some clinics continued to provide consultations by telephone and online.

According to local sources, aesthetic clinics have seen an increased interest from customers:  There is a significant interest from cosmetic surgery tourists.

This is similar to the situation in the USA, where many clinics are now fully booked until the end of the year.

During lockdown we spent more of our working life with our faces broadcast on retina screens which are not forgiving on facial blemishes.

As working from home is still common, this train of thought is likely to continue,  Importantly working from home also gives people time to recover discreetly from surgery.

The domestic market is rather different with summer vacations taking precedence over surgical procedures.

Those interested in cosmetic surgery have money, but no time

According to plastic surgeon at the MM-clinic Mare Malva, the number of people interested in surgery has not decreased, but there are also people who have lost their income and postponed surgeries.  Fortunately Estonia is well-placed to take advantage of cosmetic surgery tourism.  It is a short ferry ride from Helsinki and has a very modern infrastructure.  The medical staff are well qualified with many English speaking workers.   Already many Finns travel there for medical procedures (hip replacements and cataract operations are favoured treatments) .

Malva says the most popular surgeries are eyelid correction and breast surgeries.  

“People are looking forward to autumn. They are currently making consultations and booking time for autumn,” she said. Malva also confirmed that summer surgeries are avoided because swimming is not allowed after many procedures.

Anete Advelk, marketing manager of Medemis skin clinic,

estonian clinic
Anete Advelk,

said the clinic reopened in May on a smaller scale and with a limited choice of procedures, but the interest of customers was surprisingly high.

“Specialists' schedules were quickly booked up and for a long time,” she noted, adding the clinic has had more customers than they did this time last year.

According to Advelk, the clinic is now performing the full range of procedures which sunny weather allows.

The Medemis clinic has also seen an increase in interest after quarantine, but it is not possible to say whether this is due to the ability to recover while working from home.

“There is a noticeable increase in interest, which is shown by a higher number of visitors than in previous years. Since many of our procedures do not require a long recovery time, we cannot say whether this is due to the ability to work from home. In dealing with our customers, we have realised that people want to return to their daily rhythm and take care of their skin,” she said.

So all in all, this energetic and modern Baltic state is ready to cash in on the next wave of cosmetic surgery tourism with competitive prices and delightful tourist attractions.  We will be reviewing a full selection of Talinn clinics very shortly.

‘Royal Face’,Replaces ‘Rich Girl’ Face On Our Beauty Watch List.

royal face
Royal Facereplaces Rich Girl Face On Our Beauty Watch List

Over the past year, the media have given us ‘Resting Bitch' Face, ‘Rich Girl' Face    and  ‘Instagram Face‘ Now the venerable Sun Newspaper unveils the ‘Royal' Face.  And right there, on top of the list like a fairy perched on our Xmas tree stands Lady Di.   The ‘People's Princess' is now the benchmark for cosmetic surgery perfection.

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The Harley St Surgeon behind this news item is our old friend Julian de Silva who we have spoken of before on this site.. He calculated the perfect face shape, including the size and position of the lips, nose, chin and jawline – with Princess Diana's features most closely matching the ideal ratio.  This was a throwback for me when I became interested in the history of art  and looked for the ‘golden proportion' in every painting and church.

Diana topped the scale by being 89 per cent accurate to the Golden Ratio of Beauty Phi. Meanwhile, Queen Rania of Jordan, 49, was found to be the most beautiful living royal with a rating of 88.9 per cent.  I am sure there is a doctoral thesis lurking somewhere in this.

So where does this leave the fragrant Meghan Markle in all this?

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Ms Markle falls below Diana on the classical beauty scale although,  according to Dr De Silva, said: “Diana, Meghan and Kate are all very beautiful women. But when measured against the Greeks’ Golden Ratio of physical perfection, Princess Diana comes out on top.”

It was Diana's overall face shape that won it for her along with the lovely eyebrows and chin.

Meanwhile, de Silva praised Meghan's “beautiful face symmetry” – specifically her “almost perfectly shaped nose and a gorgeous V-shaped chin.”

So where does all this actually take us in our analysis of aesthetic perfections?  Will young ladies pop into Essex makeover parlours clutching schemas of classical sculptures or DIY patterns from celebrity magazines?   Will bewildered cosmetic surgeons in downtown Istanbul be quizzed on their knowledge of the ‘golden proportions'?   Will clients be persuaded to ‘shave a bit' off the chin to match up to Grace Kelly, who incidentally, scored a healthy 88.8% on the de Silva ranking scheme.  Will the Kardashians go into hibernation and come out looking like British Royal clones?

Watching cosmetic surgery trends is, of course, one of our main pursuits on this site and we will keep you informed as this Summer story develops.






How Has COVID-19 Boosted the Cosmetic Surgery Industry?

covid and cosmetic surgery
How Has Covid 19 Boosted The Cosmetic Surgery Industry

With many areas reporting huge losses, cosmetic surgery clinics appear to have enjoyed a boost since the pandemic swept the globe. More people are paying for surgery because they have the time to heal while working at home, giving them the chance to have their surgery pass without comments from others.


Clinics in locations such as South Korea, Australia, America, and Japan are all reporting a rise in non-invasive treatments such as Botox and lip fillers as well as surgeries like nose jobs and facelifts. With the increase in stringent hygiene expectations, clinics can still operate as long as they take extra precautions with cleaning in-between clients.

It Is Not Just for Women

Traditionally, we are led to believe that the cosmetic industry is more geared up for females. Still, with lockdown, more men have been able to get treatments that they would usually to be too embarrassed or too busy to get, opening the doors to new clients and new revenue streams.

Working from home during global quarantine

One man reported that he had his lips filled and cheek fat removed so that he could recover and people would never need to know how he had changed his appearance. He also pointed out that having the time to relax after surgery was possible due to the lockdown restrictions and being able to recover in the comfort of his own home.

What About the Locals?


South Korea has made a lot of money from the tourist cosmetic surgery trade over the years, with foreign nationals heading to the destination to enjoy the treatment for a lower price than at home. However, the effects of lockdown meant that travelling ceased and the clinics had to pivot to find new ways to make money quickly. They did this by reducing their prices and enticing locals to try out their procedures.

s.korea cosmetic surgery industry

It worked; the majority of South Korea’s clinics soon had full appointment books, and people started getting the treatments they had been considering for some time. Experts in the filed have reported that the number of local people having surgery has doubled from last year and that the number continues to rise. As lockdown eases, the clinics are not only looking forward to welcoming back their old trade, but they are excited about how they can continue to serve local people as well.

Is It Essential?

Some countries, such as Japan, did not instigate a formal lockdown but just provided advice to people on how to conduct themselves and asked them to stay at home wherever possible. This lack of insistence led them to see their opportunity to have a cosmetic treatment, especially as they had time to recover at home afterwards.

However, not everyone saw this opportunity as a good thing, and the Japanese Association of Aesthetic Medicine were quick to remind people that cosmetic surgery is not always essential and should be avoided if the spread of Covid-19 were to slow down. This warning has not stopped clinics from trading, and they report that people are keener than ever to get the cosmetic treatments they have been waiting for.

How Are They Doing It?

When we imagine cosmetic surgery, we picture the multiple consultations and discussions before the big day arrives. This level of physical meeting has not been possible and so clinics have taken to using video conferencing to start the consultation process. It is evident that there is a moral requirement for clinics to check their clients are right for surgery, but most of these decisions can be made via video call discussions.

covic consult the cosmetic surgery industry has answers

People meet with the doctor, in an online space, to discuss their requirements and find out what is and is not possible for them. Then rough measurements can be taken and initial plans made before they even need to leave the house. Once this stage is complete, they will schedule times to go to the clinic and prepare for surgery.

What is the Result?

For many people, the pandemic has been a time where they can drop into their local clinic and have procedures that they were unable to enjoy before life slowed down. The increase of homeworking and mask-wearing has made it possible for people to heal in their own time and keep their surgeries a secret from the outside world.

The reduction in physical appointments has made it easier for clinics to continue to see people, and the result is an industry that has been able to continue despite the impact of Coronavirus. With the enormous losses being seen all over the world, cosmetic surgery clinics may have just managed to beat the pandemic